# cogency

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**Nyaya**— Part of a series on Hindu philosophy …92

**History of logic**— Philosophy ( …93

**Deductive reasoning**— Deductive reasoning, also called deductive logic, is reasoning which constructs or evaluates deductive arguments. Deductive arguments are attempts to show that a conclusion necessarily follows from a set of premises or hypotheses. A deductive… …94

**Otto Rank**— Born April 22, 1884 (1884 04 22) …95

**Consistency**— For other uses, see Consistency (disambiguation). In logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.[1] The lack of contradiction can be defined in either semantic or syntactic terms. The semantic definition states that a …96

**Proposition**— This article is about the term in logic and philosophy. For other uses, see Proposition (disambiguation). In logic and philosophy, the term proposition refers to either (a) the content or meaning of a meaningful declarative sentence or (b) the… …97

**Mathematical proof**— In mathematics, a proof is a convincing demonstration (within the accepted standards of the field) that some mathematical statement is necessarily true.[1][2] Proofs are obtained from deductive reasoning, rather than from inductive or empirical… …98

**Wilhelm Furtwängler**— [ Emil Orlik] Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 ndash; November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer.Biography Furtwängler was born in Berlin into a prominent family. His father Adolf was an archaeologist, his mother a painter. Most… …99

**Name**— For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). Ceremonies, such as baptism, can be used to give names. A name is a word or term used for identification. Names can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a …100

**Intuitionistic logic**— Intuitionistic logic, or constructive logic, is a symbolic logic system differing from classical logic in its definition of the meaning of a statement being true. In classical logic, all well formed statements are assumed to be either true or… …